1990th with the beginning of social changes in Russian life,
total mortality among Russian started to rose for all age groups except
infants and children, and for both sexes, though the increase was far
greater for males. The greatest increase in mortality was among males aged
40–49, which nearly doubled (87% increase) in the period 1990–1994.
The size of the Russian Federation population, estimated
at 144.8 million in 2000 has fallen by 3.5 million in the period
1992–2000. The decline would have been even greater had it not been for net
immigration during the early 1990s due to the resettlement in the Russian
Federation of ethnic Russians returning from other Soviet republics.