||Cleft lip and multiple malformations were
exceptions from the general findings. Smoking in pregnancy and socioeconomic status are
factors associated with fetal growth restriction. These factors are also often persistent
across a woman’s pregnancies. Studies have suggested a moderately increased risk of
cleft lip in the offspring of smoking mothers compared to non-smoking mothers. An
increased risk of multiple malformations has been found among mothers from lower
socioeconomic levels than from higher.