Egyptian Food and Agriculture Statistics


Since the Pharaonic era, Egypt is an agricultural nation. The Nile River and the fertile soils on its banks have allowed Egyptians to build a splendid civilization based on agriculture. Nowadays, agriculture is one of the main pillars of the Egyptian economy; in 2012, agriculture contributed with 13.4% of the national gross domestic production and employed 27.1% of the total Egyptian workforce.

Some Facts and Statistics about Agriculture in Egypt
1. Egypt has an arid climate and the Nile River is the principal source of water for agriculture; thus, cultivated lands are mostly located beside the Nile River and the Delta, while some lands are in the oasis and Sinai.
2. The total cultivated area has climbed from 7,836,000 Feddan in 2000 to 8,954,000 Feddan in 2013.
3. Wheat is the most cultivated crop in Egypt; it occupies most of the agricultural lands.
4. Wheat production has increased by 7.6% in 2013, making 9,460,000 tons.
5. Egyptian long-staple cotton is well known for its fine quality; cotton has thus always the most profitable agricultural product in Egypt. However, the cotton production has been declining in the past decade; production declined from 596,000 tons in 2003 to 294,000 tons in 2012.
6. Around 32 billion m3 of water was used for irrigation all over the country in 2012.
7. The top ten Egyptian agricultural commodities produced in 2013 were: sugarcane, sugar beet, wheat, tomato, rice, potatoes, cow milk, oranges, buffalo milk, and onions.
8. The top ten Egyptian agricultural commodities exported in 2012 were: oranges, onions, potatoes, molasses, rice, sugar, grapes, soybean oil, wheat flour, and dry beans.
9. The top ten agricultural commodities imported in 2012 were: wheat flour, sugar, wheat, tangerines, tea, rice, palm oil, beverages, vegetables, and bananas.
10. In 2013, Egypt was self-sufficient in milk and eggs, and had a surplus of rice, potatoes, fresh vegetables, and citrus.
11. According to the 2013 statistics, in Egypt there are:
• 4,950,000 cattles
• 4,200,000 buffaloes
• 5,450,000 sheep
• 4,350,000 goats
• 142,000 camels
• 127,000,000 chickens
12. The annual milk production has climbed from 3,824,000 tons in 2000 to 5,849,000 tons in 2012.
13. The annual egg production has climbed from 4445 million eggs in 2000 to around one billion eggs in 2012.
14. The fish production has climbed from 724,400 tons in 2000 to 1,371,800 tons in 2012.
15. Beehives number has significantly declined from 1,423,000 hives in 2000 to only one million hives in 2013. Therefore, the annual honey production declined from 8267 tons in 2000 to 5,066 tons in 2012.

Eating is an integral part of Egyptian culture; Egyptian households spend around 37.6% of their income on food and drinks. However, due to these payments and the considerable agricultural production, an estimated 13.7 million Egyptians (17% of the population) suffered from food insecurity in 2011. Achieving food security will be a challenge facing the over-growing population, given the limited agricultural land area and the full dependence on the Nile River.



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