Learn Hieroglyphs

I. Relative clause

The relative is expressed in Ancient Egyptian language in two ways: either by means of relative clauses, or by relative form:

I. Relative clause

 Two main elements form these types of sentences:
1) Antecedent to which the relative clause is attached.
2) Relative clause, with or without a relative adjective: the clause introduced by the relative adjective is called a true relative clause, while the relative clause without a relative adjective is called virtual relative clause.

1) True relative clause

These sentences are introduced by means of a relative adjective:
Singular Masculine
Who, which
Singular Feminine
Who, which
Plural Masculine
Who, which
Plural Feminine
Who, which
HfAt ntt m Xt.f
The worm which is in his stomach.
HfAt = antecedent + relative clause
Here the subject is identical to the antecedent and implied in the relative adjective itself.
st ntt im
The woman who is there.
st is the antecedent and is identical with the subject after the relative clause.  It is clear that st is an antecedent and a subject, while the feminine relative adjective ntt forms a unit with st following it in gender and number singular feminine; im is an adverbial predicate.
rmT Kmt ntyw im Hna.f
The Egyptians who are there with him.
rmT Kmt is a plural antecedent and identical with the subject; hence the relative adjective is a masculine plural and the subject is not expressed.

2) Virtual relative clause

The relative clause constructed without a relative adjective.
iw wn nDs Nxt rn.f
There is a commoner whose name is Nxt.
This sentence is a relative clause without an introductory relative adjective; nDs is the antecedent and the suffix pronoun .f in the virtual relative clause refers back to it.  May be used either as an epithet or as a noun, without a separated expressed antecedent
nty im
(anyone) who is there
 Here nty is treated as a noun (subject) and im, the resumptive adverb, is the adverbial predicate.

Negation of the relative clause

The relative clause is negated by means of the negative relative adjective  iwty. It is conjugated according to number and gender. It follows the antecedent and agrees with it in number and gender.
Masculine singular
who/which not
Feminine singular
who/which not
Masculine plural
who/which not
Feminine plural
who/which not
mDAt iwtt sS.s
The book which is without its writing.
iwty sA.f
The one who is without his son.