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Non-Enclitic particles

This group of particles is characterized by the ability to stand as the first word of a sentence. They can support what follows them and do not need support from what follows them.

1)       iw
This is the most common of all Egyptian particles, but it usually cannot be translated. In fact, Egyptologists still debate about the exact meaning of iw, and no one has yet come up with a full explanation of why Egyptians use it in some cases but not in others.
iw .i m pr
I am in the house.
2)      , in
in nsw mn xpr ra pw
He is the king “Menkheber Ra”.
3)       ir
This particle is derived from the preposition . If it is before the noun, it will express the meaning ‘as for’.
ir sf Wsir pw
As for yesterday, he was Osiris.
If this particle is before a verbal sentence at present or past tense, it will express the conditional particle ‘if’.
ir gsA.f gsA.k
If he tilts, you tilt.
4)       ix then, therefore, so that
This particle expresses a wish.
ix iry.i sxrw.k
So that, I may organize your affairs.
5)       isw
isw Dw pw mDr Da
Look, it is the mountain that stands up to the storms.
6)       ist, isT
isT StA wrt wAt
Although the road is very bumpy.
7)       mk
mk wi m st tn
Look, I am in this place.
8)       n،  nn
nn wi Hr(y)-ib.sn
I was not in the midst of them.
9)      , nHmn assuredly
nHmn wi mi kA
Assuredly, I am like a bull.
10) ,, ,, Hw, Hwy, HA would that
This particle expresses a wish.
HA wi im
Would that I be there!
11)  xn indeed
xn sy ii.ti r Dd n.i
Indeed, she came to tell me.
,,   xr then
wbn.f xr tA m Haawt
He rises, and then the land is in excitement.
12)  kA
This particle expresses a wish.
kA hAb.k n.i Hr.s
Would that you send to me regarding it.
13)  smwn
nb.i smwn sxty.f pw
My lord, it is probably his peasant.
14) ,  ti
ti sw Hr pri
When he was on the battlefield.