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II. Relative form


Egyptian has in addition to the relative clause, another grammatical construction known as the relative form. Although they are different constructions, they play a similar role. the difference between these two constructions can be observed in the following two examples.
1) Relative clause
st ntt m pr
The lady who is in the house.
Nominal relative clause with adverbial predicate.
2) Relative sDmt.n.f  form
st sDmt.n.f
The lady whom he heard
The relative sDm.n.f form plays a role similar to the relative clause in the previous example as both qualify the antecedent st. Note that sDm is written with the feminine ending t to agree with the feminine antecedent.
Below are the forms of strong verbs in their relative form.
Perfective Relative
Imperfective Relative
Perfect Relative
Masculine Singular
Masculine Plural
Usages of the Relative Forms
1) Relative forms can be used either with or without an expressed antecedent: like the participle, it can be used as a noun or as epithets. When it is used as a noun, it may be qualified by the adjective nb all, every, and any.
sDmw.n.f sDmw
To whom the judges listen.
kmAt.n bAw iwnw nfrw.s
The lady whose beauty the souls of iwnw created.
The relative form was used independently above, not preceded by an antecedent it can describe. It was described by the epithet nb and was given the "t" of inanimate objects. That way the sentence may be used as a subject or object for the verb depending on its position, or other uses of a noun.
rdit.n.f n.i nbt
All that he gave to me.
Here the relative sDmt.n.f is used as a noun and followed by the adjective nbt.
2) Relative forms in which the antecedent concurs with its object.
xt nbt ddt sr nb nDs nb r Hwt-nTr
Anything which any official or any commoner places in the temple.
Here the antecedent xt nbt is identical with the direct object of the relative sDmt.f form.
3) Relative forms with a direct object different from the antecedent.
mxAt nt Ra fAAt.f mAat im.s
That balance of Re in which he weighs justice.
Here the antecedent is different from the object of the relative form in which case a resumptive pronoun is attached to the relative form referring to the antecedent.
One should distinguish between the relative form and passive participle, as they both have similar usages and forms, such as the phrase  mrrw nb.f may be regarded as an imperfective relative form and translated as ‘one whom his lord loves or as an imperfective passive participle and translated ‘one beloved of his lord’, with the subject nb.f in the form of a direct genitive.
Negation of relative forms
The negative verb tm is used to negate relative forms, in which case it assumes the required relative form and is followed by the negatival complement.
nn st nbt tmt.n.i ir mnw im.s
There was not any place in which I did not make monuments.